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Ursula Goodenough

Ed wrote: I suppose that a statistically minded cosmologist could compute the probability of (and thus the expected quantity of) carbon formation in the universe based on random processes alone and compare that with actual measurements. Perhaps in this way you could show that it is “necessary” for intelligence to guide otherwise inert matter, because elements in the universe would not have emerged in the quantities that they have according to known statistical probabilities. 


??? I thought carbon was formed during nucleosynthesis in old stars. Isn’t it the case that all you need is hydrogen and gravity?