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Karen Chaffee

<p>Ursula, the formation of the carbon nucleus itself is dependant upon some fine tuning of some constants that govern the strong and weak nuclear force and something called the Hoyle state.  I have not read about the Hoyle state, but the strong and weak force form in a fraction of a second after the big bang with the required fine tuning.</p><p>The coincidences that intrigue me involve the properties of the electron, also in place in a fraction of a second.  These properties require the electrons to be a distance from the nucleus relatively quite huge, making the atom (relative to the size of the nucleus) very large and the atom mostly empty space.  The properties of the electron result in the orbitals  (and the bonding orbitals)  and that is what leads to the formation of molecules.</p><p> </p><p>I’ve never felt spiritual, I don’t believe I have religious longing, and I never felt interested in New Age, and it never occurred to me that the universe might be alive (and I don’t think it is), but when I decided to make a study of this, it was just one thing after another after another.  At some point it seems to me it becomes unscientific to ignore it.</p><p> </p><p>You can read about the fine tuning of the universe that allows for the formation of the carbon nucleus in the wiki page of that name.   There is no place I know of that allows you to read about the fine tuning of the electron that allows for chemical bonding.   You can read my study of it in my forum post (carbon mystery and wonder)  but that really needs to be edited, it isn’t easy to read.</p>