This issue glimpses some of the important milestones over the past decade that have overthrown the Modern Synthesis in favor of the vision and science championed by Lynn Margulis. Discussed are the radical interdependence of life on Earth, the fact that Earth is a bacterial world, that bacterial cells are the building blocks of life, that there is no bacterial individuality only communities of organisms (even humans are communties of their eukaryotic cells and their persistent microbial symbionts. Also discussed are spirochete bacteria.